The sweetest hen in the flock sits in the same nest box all day, growling, puffing out her feathers, even pecking at intruders- both feathered and boot-wearing. She is not a beast to be trifled with. What's her deal? She is broody, which means she is determined to hatch chicks. If she is not going to be allowed to hatch chicks, she must be broken and the sooner, the better.
If she is going to be allowed to hatch eggs, click here for more information about caring for broody hens and facilitating the hatch.
A broody hen is one that is inspired to sit on a collection of eggs until she hatches chicks. It is an instinct, influenced by hormones, that can be triggered by seeing a collection of eggs in a nest, another broody hunkered down in a nest box or the length of daylight hours.
A hen has a hormone surge prior to egg-laying that causes her to find and prepare a nest for the arrival. The hormones usually return to normal levels after the egg is laid, but occasionally they will remain elevated, which causes the hen to sit in a chosen location, intent on hatching eggs. Some breeds are more predisposed to broodiness than others, Silkies and Cochins, for example. I like to say that broodiness is a ‘calling.’ Not every hen will become broody in her lifetime, but those that do are committed to the calling and fiercely protective of their territory.
A broody hen left to her own devices will lay a clutch of eggs, which, if fertile, will wait until she is ready to sit on them, warming them until they hatch. When she is ready to begin sitting on the eggs her body releases the hormone, prolactin, which stops egg-laying temporarily. Under ordinary conditions, she will sit on the eggs for 21 days, raise her chicks and resume egg-laying approximately 5 weeks later.
If there are no fertile eggs or she sits on an empty nest, broodiness can continue long beyond three weeks, resulting in negative consequences.
|April was sitting on hatching eggs & puffed up when I opened the egg door.|
HOW TO IDENTIFY A BROODY HEN
As a general rule, a broody prefers a dark, private, comfortable location in which she will sit until her eggs hatch. Her chosen spot may be a nest box, or a hidden location away from the coop. It is not unheard of for a hen to disappear, returning three weeks later with baby chicks in tow.
|A stash of eggs found by Julie Bittinger in a prime brooding location- dark & private.|
|This is the classic 'puffing out' of feathers that broodies exhibit when in defensive mode.|
This is Rachel, my Bantam Cochin Frizzle, who is often broody but is no longer
permitted to sit on eggs as she kills the chicks when they hatch.
A broody hen sits in her chosen spot, briefly leaving it once or twice a day to eat, drink and relieve herself. (Broody poop is the most horrendous, foul and ginormous of all specimens as the droppings are retained for hours vs. being eliminated regularly throughout the day. A broody hen does not foul her nest, keeping it clean for her anticipated chicks.)
Rachel in the Zen-like trance I call The Broody Zone.They only snap out
of it when interrupted or interfered with.
A broody plucks her own breast feathers to expose the warmth and moisture of her skin directly to the eggs (hence the expression "to feather one's nest," meaning to prepare for something).
THE CONSEQUENCES OF UNWANTED BROODINESS
Her calling requires her to sit and wait for chicks to hatch. The lack of fertile eggs or any eggs at all do not concern her. She obeys her calling to sit and in doing so, she will neglect herself for the good of her anticipated chicks. She eat, drinks and eliminates waste once or twice a day at most. Her comb becomes pale, her feathers lose sheen and she loses a noticeable amount of weight. This drastic change normal routine is tolerable in 21 day stints but protracted stints are unhealthy for her.
She will continue to lose weight and becomes vulnerable to external parasites settling in among her feathers. She stops producing eggs while brooding and for five weeks or more afterwards. She cannot be relied upon for contributions to egg sales or consumption for eight weeks total, on average. Her behavior often inspires other hens in the flock to go broody, multiplying the consequences already mentioned.
Within 24 hours of the first broody appearing last summer, every nest box in my coop
was full of broody hens. Broodiness begets broodiness.
The Black Ameraucana was broody, Irene, the Welsummer
just wanted to lay an egg in peace.
Mabel couldn't find an empty nest box as they were all occupied by broodies.
Mabel takes it upon herself to find a quiet corner of the coop to lay her eggs absent a free nest box.
A broody hen who is allowed to sit indefinitely can suffer long-term health consequences and even die from malnutrition. It is important to ‘break’ or stop a hen’s broodiness as soon as possible after identifying the behavior. The longer she is broody, the longer it will take to break her and the longer it will take for her to return to egg-laying. If the behavior is identified within the first day or two, it can be reversed within a day or two. To break a broody, her belly must be cooled off and her comfy nesting routine disrupted.
There are many suggested methods for broody-breaking, some unreliable or ineffective, some cruel and inhumane. I strongly recommend against any technique involving water or ice. I also do not recommend the ‘boomerang’ method of taking her out of the nest repeatedly, only for her to panic, cluck and run directly back to her chosen spot or to sit right down in protest before running back to her nest. I find this method unnecessarily protracted and stressful for everyone. Further, she continues to occupy a nest box during this time, making it unavailable for other hens to use.
This is a broody was taken out of the nest for illustration purposes only. She promptly assumed the broody position in the mulch. Shortly thereafter she was moved into the Broody Breaker.
To break a broody, I use a proven and reliable method consisting of a wire-bottomed cage placed in a well-lit location. As soon as a broody is identified, she goes into the Broody Breaker. A rabbit hutch serves this purpose perfectly. The wire bottomed cage allows cooler air to circulate under the hen, cooling off her belly/breast.
Since my Broody Breaker was occupied with adolescent chicks,
this broody had been sitting for several days & will take more than a week to break.
The Broody Breaker is Rachel's second home. Cochins are well known for their propensity for broodiness.
To test whether a hen is ready to join the flock as a contributing member again, I remove her from the Broody Breaker and watch her behavior. If she is still broody she will high-tail it directly back to her chosen nest, in which case, back she goes into the Broody Breaker for another tour of duty.