Mar 18, 2012

Answers from The Chicken Vet on VACCINATIONS

The Chicken Vet answers questions on: VACCINATIONS
VACCINATIONS with The Chicken Vet
My existing flock had been vaccinated for Marek's disesase when I adopted...
My existing flock had been vaccinated for
Marek's disesase when I adopted...
Monica, Rachel & Phoebe, who were not. I was lucky this time but won't make the same mistake twice
Monica, Rachel & Phoebe, who were not.
I was lucky this time but won't make the same mistake twice
The first question in my new series "Answers from the Chicken Vet" came from Maryann B. in Maryland:
Q: "Referring to an article in this issue of Backyard Poultry written by a vet. The articles are well written and on pages 50 and 54. This vet also shows chickens. She talks about different diseases, one being Largngotracheistis which I believe is vaccinated with a live virus for this disease. Regardless, if using a live virus vaccine that would mean that chicken would carry the virus. If one chicken would be introduced to the vaccinated chicken the other chickens could possibly contact it. My confusion is most of the posts on Facebook talk about adding more chicks/adults to a current flock. I never read anything about vaccinating.

Since I am just starting out (and maybe studying too hard about my future pets in preparing for the day they arrive) my concern is infecting chickens I would have by bringing in another chicken/rooster from a different place. I know [certain hatcheries] advertise the chicks they ship are vaccinated. I probably won't go that route because I do not want 25 chickens to start out. I was thinking about maybe getting a few pullets from one location and someone has a young, healthy rooster they are trying to place. 

Maybe I am worrying too much."

A: This is a great question, Maryanne!

Vaccination is something every chicken keeper SHOULD think about. The problem is, it's complicated, and there is no right answer. I took 2 full credits in immunology, and I still have a lot of questions.
First, let me tell you some of the basics. Vaccines are viruses that have either been selected for being very weak, have been crippled in a lab somewhere, or have been outright killed (inactivated). The way they protect the bird from disease is by fooling the body into thinking it has been infected with a full-blown disease. (Think of your 10 year old son, back from his first schoolyard scuffle..."it was me or him, Mom"). The body then recognizes the disease virus, and keeps some immune cells in ready reserve to quickly mobilize if it sees the virus again.

Weak viruses act just like disease causing viruses, and create a strong immune response. Crippled viruses (called attenuated, or modified) are good, but don't stimulate AS good a response. Killed viruses are the poorest at stimulating immunity, but you can give a massive dose of them, since they cannot cause disease (they're dead, after all), so you can still get a good response. Live viruses (even crippled ones), do infect the hen, cause a mild reaction and can be shed. Depending on the disease, vaccine viruses can be shed for various amounts of time and some diseases (such as Marek's disease, a herpes virus) can be shed at times of stress for the life of the bird. Inactivated vaccines do not colonize and cannot be shed.

So...that's what? Here's another concept that I find useful....consider your hen as a seaside has a breakwall to protect it from damage from high seas. To protect the town, you need to either build the wall up high, or keep the waves low. Either way is effective. Vaccinating is building the wall of protection, and the amount of disease that tries to infect your bird is the wave of insult.

Now, where the rubber hits the road: You need to decide for your flock which philosophy you want to follow....low insult, or high protection. Ideally you do both. Protect your hens as much as is practical, and reduce the amount of challenge they face. Your main danger for introducing disease is when new birds show will never be sure what they are carrying with them, even if they look perfectly healthy.

Steps you should take when introducing new birds to your flock:
  1. KNOW the vaccine status for your birds....what vaccines have they long ago was it (protection wanes, the longer the time is since the last vaccination, the less reliable is the protection....the wall gradually crumbles)
  2. KNOW the vaccine/disease status of the incoming birds. This is always going to be questionable...unless you are buying day-old chicks, you can never be sure, but ask anyway.
  3. Try to match the two groups as best you can....if the replacements have been exposed to a disease your hens haven't, find out if you can vaccinate yours ahead of the new birds' arrival (usually 2-3 weeks before mixing is the ideal time to vaccinate)...remember to consider the new arrival too...make sure they are protected from the viruses your hens carry
  4. QUARANTINE the newcomers....ideally for at least a week or two. Birds shed virus much more under stress....if you can get them used to your yard, your water, your feed, your management, etc, etc before they are exposed to the stress of your already established hens, you will reduce virus shedding in the area of your hens by a huge proportion.

  5. Make the transition as stress-free as possible....short introductions, with a chance for the newbie to escape if necessary, etc.
None of this is fool-proof, but it will minimize the chances of vaccine shedding causing disease in either the established flock or the newbies.

Know the vaccine status of your flock and the replacements
  • Match up the virus protection as best as you can
  • Minimize stress at mixing
  • Quarantine incoming birds to minimize virus shedding that accompanies stress
  • Plan your replacements, so you can manage the immune status of your flock BEFORE the new birds are at the door
I hope this vet immunology profs will be spinning in their graves to know that I distilled down all they told me into a 1 page "how-to". There are a million factors involved, and TONS more information, but this seems the most applicable, and will give you quite a bit of practical advantage.

Hope it helps.
Dr. Mike Petrik, DVM, MSc
The Chicken Vet
The Chicken Vet answers questions on: VACCINATIONS
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  1. Such great info for a newbie! I've been wondering about my little ladies. I asked at the store if they should be vaccinated and they said they haven't had any problems. We are going without (this will be our first flock) and praying a lot!

  2. This is the clearest answer to a muddle of a mess of information regarding vaccinations I've seen . Thanks!!

  3. Candice Love Prentice on facebook ~
    Interesting article. I seldom think about vaccinating my birds, but am now interested. Next time could we get a comprehensive list of vaccines recommended? I have show birds and some pets. Should I vaccinate them differently?

  4. I have never bought babies from a hatchery, but I do feel that immunizations are important to ward off potential problems in the future. I feed all my babies the medicated starter so that I can try to give them a good start. I also feel that is highly important to keep the new one seperate to not infect the flock if there is a problem. An ounce of prevention is still worth a pound of cure :) Thank you for the answer to this.
    Mandi Miller

  5. Kaylin McLeod3/19/12, 7:53 PM

    I love this! I am so looking forward to more advice from a chicken vet! I love how this is written- both informative and catchy. Sure kept me interested. I'll be sure to ALWAYS quarantine new birds now.

  6. I think it is great to get your birds vaccinated, as mine are, and I believe the vaccinations I gave my chickens saved my flock. In late August I got a Black Austrolorp, but 3 weeks ago she die of an unknown disease/sickness. I later found out she had a cold and died from that. Since all of my chickens have been vaccinated they have not gotten the disease and have shown no side-effect, so I think it is a TRAMENDOUS idea to vaccinate your flock:)
    -Jared Fluhrer,

  7. I'm a newbie too. My flock will be arriving in May. Now I feel very overwhelmed....I must get on the phone to my vet and make sure they will vaccinate poultry...

  8. I thought the point in introducing the live vaccine was to build antibodies that then killed the invading virus, while leaving a build up of antibodies behind. If that is the case then how can the body still shed the virus later? From what I learned in microbiology/immunology and histology the immune cells learn to recognize the virus, bring the specialized antibodies from the spleen (amazingly your body has a single "antibody mold" for every disease there is even if you have or will never come into contact with it, which it brings into action and replicates an "army" to fight off the invading cells) to replicate the one needed and then from there on out your body has them in case they are needed again, but they don't allow the virus to remain in the body. They fight it. The article definitely made me think and I'm going to have to go back and recheck my text books because my year old chickens weren't vaccinated but the new ones I got this morning were. Hmmm...

  9. Candy Hornyak Hall on facebook ~
    We have had several backyard chickens since last year...and one from the year before. I have never thought about vaccinating until reading this. I am considering adding a few new girls to the flock and will definitely keep this information in mind when (or if) I decide to do it. Thanks and I will definitely be checking back in.

  10. I have not vaccinated my birds either. But this information is very helpful, as I have found vaccination information very confusing in the past. I feel it is really important to do all possible to keep our birds safe and healthy. Thanks for the great information AGAIN!

  11. I think vaccinating your birds is like the chice with kids. Some do, some don't. This is an awesome post with knowledge I will utilize for future additions to our flock and keep our girls protected, safe, and healthy. Lisie Pfeiffer

  12. Great information! I often wonder if hatchery birds are vaccinated?
    Cheep Cheep and Holly Olejnik. On facebook

  13. Judy Scobbo DeLowry3/19/12, 8:20 PM

    Judy Scobbo DeLowry~~~~ thank you for the great information. I always get my kids as babies. I do not vaccinate them. I will never bring outside birds into my flock and have never had any problems with diseases at all. Knock on wood!! :)

  14. Maryanne Brown3/19/12, 8:48 PM

    Thank you Chicken Vet, and most importantly, thank you Egg Carton Lady, for your wealth of knowledge. I have decided what I will do for my first flock and then proceed from there. They will definitely be vaccinated. I am sure after I read this five times over I will "get it". However, it will go into my file on disease. Not real sure yet on the live virus. Luckily, I have a member of our local Kennel Club who teaches at University of Maryland Eastern Shore and her specialty is chickens. This is the land of Perdue Chickens for those of you who are not familiar with the eastern shore of Maryland.
    Maryanne Brown

  15. I always have my hatchery chicks vaccinated and will vaccinate chicks I hatch at home because I do plan on bringing in outside birds for my Dorking breeding program (always with a quarantine).  Question for Kathy: Do you vaccinate the chicks you hatch at home?  And if so, what do you do about the fact that you have to use a $15 bottle of reconstituted vaccine within one hour when chicks often hatch hours or even days apart?

  16. Linda A Leonard11/25/13, 7:45 AM

    This was really helpful hay it let me comment thanks

  17. How many kind of vaccine?

  18. I have a top knot 2 monthshe same thingm t old she isnt eating or drinking much at all she is very weak she dosent stand for very long. I had 4 die 2 weeks ago. Thought it was over now its back what could this be