Molting is the natural shedding of old feathers and growth of new ones. Chickens molt in a predictable order beginning at the head and neck, proceeding down the back, breast, wings and tail. While molting occurs at fairly regular intervals for each chicken, it can occur at any time due to lack of water, food or sudden change in normal lighting conditions. Broody hens molt furiously after their eggs have hatched as they return to their normal eating and drinking routines.
This is Phoebe, my bantam Frizzle Cochin in October 2010.
This is Phoebe in September 2011- like clock-work.
FIRST JUVENILE MOLT
Chickens experience two, juvenile or "mini molts" as I like to call them, before a their first annual molt. The first mini molt begins at 6-8 days old and is complete by approximately 4 weeks when the chick's down is replaced by its first feathers.
This is a 7 day old Olive Egger chick. She is losing her yellow down, which is being replaced by her first feathers.
SECOND JUVENILE MOLT
A chicken's second mini molt occurs between 7-12 weeks old when its first feathers are replaced by its second feathers. It is at this time that a rooster's distinguishing, ornamental feathers will appear.
These Black Copper Marans & Ameraucanas were 11 weeks old at the time of their second mini molt.
There is little doubt when chickens are going through their juvenile molt as evidence is left behind.
All chickens will molt annually, their first annual molt generally occurring around 16-18 months of age. During a molt, chickens will lose their feathers and grow new ones. Feathers consist of 85% protein and feather production places great demands on a chicken's energy and nutrient stores, as a result, egg production is likely to drop or stop entirely until the molt is finished. On average, molting takes 7-8 weeks from start to finish, but there is a wide range of normal from 4 to 12 weeks or more.
Both molting and egg production are controlled internally in response to lighting changes. When daylight hours decrease, egg production may slow down or stop completely and chickens will shed their feathers and grow new ones. When spring approaches and daytime lengthens, egg production will pick up again. At the end of summer, supplemental light may be added to the coop to promote egg-laying through the dark months.
Lucy (Easter Egger)
This is Phoebe, my White bantam frizzled Cochin, who is the poster chicken for a rough molt. She has molted in this most undignified manner for the past two years. She's a trooper though, I have yet to hear her demand a parka.
Newly emerging feathers have a vein-filled shaft which will bleed if cut or injured. These pin feathers are very sensitive and chickens generally prefer not to be handled while molting.
Feathers emerging through the vein-filled shaft, which is covered by
a waxy coating (aka: the epitrichium).
An injured feather shaft is visible in this photo as a black spot of
dried blood on top of the feather shaft.
If the bleeding will not stop, the pinfeather should be removed with tweezers by grasping it at the base close to the skin and pulling quickly. Apply light pressure to the area until bleeding stops. Apply a little Vetericyn Wound & Infection spray or antibiotic ointment to the area and keep the bird apart from the flock until healed.
This was the source and extent of the injury on the Marans, above.
A waxy-type casing surrounds each new feather and either falls off or is removed by a preening chicken. The feather within then unfurls and the inner vein dries up (the feather shaft is then known as a quill).
Lots of shaft casings are visible on the droppings board in this photo:
This picture shows the new feathers on the back of Rachel's neck are losing the last of the waxy casings.HOW TO HELP CHICKENS GET THROUGH A MOLT & RETURN TO EGG LAYING
There are a few things that can be done to help chickens get through a molt a little bit easier:
3. Limit handling to avoid inflicting pain and to keep stress to a minimum.
Rachel's neck feathers are just beginning to emerge. It looks painful and it is painful.
**NO MORE THAN 5% of a hen's daily dietary intake should consist of
anything other than their layer ration.**
Alfalfa Cake Protein Treat recipe here.
EXCESS PROTEIN ADVISORY
Caution should be exercised when supplementing the chickens' diet with protein. Large amounts of protein can lead to diarrhea and other, serious problems. "Excess protein in a chicken's diet is converted to uric acid and deposited as crystals in joints, causing gout. The excess use of meat scraps as a source of protein can also result in an imbalance of phosphorous."1 "Incorrect diets that contain excessive levels of protein causes wetter droppings since the extra protein is converted into urates. This causes your chicken to drink more therefore you will see an increase in urates leading to wet, damp bedding."2
NOTE ABOUT CAT FOOD
Cat food should be fed to chickens in moderation only for a limited period of time due to the potential for consuming excessive amounts of methionine, which can result in Heinz-body anemia4 and death.
Sources available upon request.
September 11, 2011 (above) November 11, 2011 (below)
1 The Chicken Health Handbook, Damerow, Gail 1994 (pgs 27-28)
Mineral Deficiencies in Poultry
2 Treatment & Management of Diarrhoea
4 Heinz Anemia